Chemical Evolution of galaxies
Metallicity evolution of the Universe using scaling relations as the Mass-Metallicity and the Fundamental Metallicity Relation
The physics of galaxy assembly: spatially resolved IFS observations of High-redshift galaxies - NIRSpec/JWST GTO Integral-field spectroscopy (IFS) observations of individual high-redshift galaxies with NIRSpec will enable us to investigate in detail the most important physical processes driving galaxy evolution across the cosmic epoch. The main goals of these observations are: to trace the distribution of star formation, to map the resolved properties of the stellar populations, to trace the gas kinematics (i.e. velocity fields, σv) and, therefore, determine dynamical masses and also identify non-virial motions (outflow and inflows), and to map metallicity gradients and dust extinction. These quantities will be mapped both for star forming galaxies and galaxies hosting active galaxy nuclei (AGNs). With this program we will extend up to z~6, and higher, the current ground-based studies relying on observations of the Hα line, which are limited to z ≃ 2.5 and which are affected by low sensitivity and modest angular resolution. The galaxy sample will be selected to be a good representation of the most massive Main Sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies (including a few off-MS cases) and AGNs in the range 3-5 (both powerful starbursts and quasars). The samples will be drawn from previous optical, near-IR, and sub-mm and mm surveys.
MOONRISE: The Main MOONS GTO Extragalactic Survey The MOONS instrument possesses
an exceptional combination of large multiplexing, high sensitivity, broad simultaneous spectral coverage (from optical to near-infrared bands), large patrol area and high fibre density. These properties provide the unprecedented potential of enabling, for the very first time, SDSS-like surveys around Cosmic Noon (z ~ 1–2.5), when the star formation rate in the Universe peaked. The high-quality spectra delivered by MOONS will sample the same nebular and stellar diagnostics observed in extensive surveys of local galaxies, providing an accurate and consistent description of the evolution of various physical properties of galaxies,and hence a solid test of different scenarios of galaxy formation and transformation. Most importantly, by spectroscopically identifying hundreds of thousands of galaxies at high redshift, the MOONS surveys will be capable of determining the environments in which primeval galaxies lived and will reveal how such environments affected galaxy evolution.
KLEVER (Kmos LEnsed Velocity and Emission line Review) is an ESO Large Programme exploiting the multi-IFU near-IR spectrograph KMOS at the Very Large Telescope. The goal is to obtain spatially resolved spectroscopy of a sample of about 200 galaxies in the redshift range z~1-2.5, in all three primary near-IR bands (J, H, K) so to map all of the primary optical nebular lines redshifted into the near-IR bands ([OII], [NeIII], He II, Hβ, [OIII], Hα, [NII], [SII], [SIII]). The combination of these multiple lines will enable us to investigate in detail the physical properties of the ISM in galaxies (excitation mechanism, chemical enrichment, ionization parameter, density, etc...) with an accuracy that has not been possible in previous large surveys.
AMAZE (Assessing the Mass Aboundance redshift-Z Evolution) and LSD,(Lyman-break galaxies Stellar populations and Dynamics): two italian projects aimed at studying spatially resolved dynamical an chemical evolution at redshift z>3, using integral field spectroscopy with SINFONI@VLT, multi object observation with LUCIFER@LBT, and XSHOOTER@VLT